Vision Science Research Group
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Prof Kathryn J. Saunders PhD, FCOptom

Professor of Optometry and Vision Science

Kathryn trained as an optometrist at Cardiff University and Moorfield Eye Hospital. She received a PhD in Vision Science from Cardiff University under the supervision of Drs Carol Westall and Maggie Woodhouse. She is currently a Professor of Optometry and Vision Science at the University of Ulster, Northern Ireland where she is Head of Subject for Optometry.

Kathryn’s research centres on visual development in infancy and childhood and, in particular, the impact of neurological impairment and developmental delay on visual outcome. Her work aims to better understand both the typical and atypical visual system and to improve the visual assessment, treatment and care offered to children and adults with developmental disability. She is particularly concerned with promoting a multi-disciplinary approach to vision care for those with neurological impairments and complex visual needs, encouraging functional assessments of vision and improving communication of results to parents and health and education professionals. She has lead the development of a web-based resource for those working with people with reduced vision, in particular children with special educational needs. The website provides downloadable images which give a guide to the size and detail of images that are suitable over a range of levels of vision. Visual acuity webpages

Professor Saunders has many years experience providing vision care for children with and without special needs including children with Down syndrome, cerebral palsy, complications of extreme premature birth and complex neurological disorders. Her paediatric and special needs clinic at the University offer vision testing for children with and without special educational needs and complex visual problems and patients travel from all over the island of Ireland to attend. Fun, child-friendly methods are used to look at children’s eyes and test their vision. If you would like to book an appointment for an eye test or would like more information please contact the Optometry clinic on 028 70123047.

Kathryn has received grants from the Northern Irish R&D Office, the Wellcome Trust, the College of Optometrists, the Nuffield Foundation, the Department for Education and Learning (DEL) and Causeway Local Health and Social Care Group. She has active research collaborations with many researchers and clinicians across nationally and internationally including Prof. Jonathan Jackson (Australian College of Optometry, Victoria), Dr. Maggie Woodhouse (Optometry and Vision Science, Cardiff University), Dr Nicola Logan and Prof. Bernard Gilmartin (Optometry, Aston University), Prof. Rowan Candy (Optometry and Vision Science, Indiana University, USA), Prof Ian Flitcroft (Ophthalmology, Children’s University Hospital, Dublin).

Kathryn is a Fellow and elected Council Member of the UK College of Optometrists, she sits on several regional and national multidisciplinary and interagency committees relating to optometry including the UK Vision2020 Learning Disability committee. Optometry Northern Ireland and the UK Vision Strategy Action Group on Children’s Screening for Visual or Vision Defects.

Prof Kathryn J. Saunders PhD, FCOptom

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Professor Kathryn Saunders
Professor of Optometry and Vision Science
Biomedical Sciences Research Institute

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Room G151
School of Biomedical Sciences
University of Ulster
Coleraine campus
Cromore Road
Coleraine
Co. Londonderry
BT52 1SA

phone: +44 28 70124433
Email: kj.saunders@ulster.ac.uk

Prof Kathryn J. Saunders PhD, FCOptom - Publications

Number of items: 71.

Healey, Natasha, McLoone, Eibhlin, Saunders, Kathryn, Jackson, Jonathan and McClelland, Julie (2014) Are worldwide albinism prevalence figures an accurate reflection? An incidental finding from a Northern Ireland study. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 98 (4).

Healey , Natasha, McClelland, Julie, Saunders, Kathryn and Jackson, Jonathan (2014) Longitudinal study of spherical refractive error in infantilenystagmus syndrome. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 31.

Breslin, Karen, O'Donoghue, Lisa and Saunders, Kathryn J (2013) A prospective study of spherical refractive error and ocular components among Northern Irish schoolchildren (the NICER study) . Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54 (7). pp. 4843-4850.

Healey, Natasha, McLoone, Eibhlin, Mahon, Gerard, Jackson, Jonathan, Saunders, Kathryn and McClelland, Julie F (2013) Investigating the relationship between foveal morphology and refractive error in a population with infantile nystagmus syndrome . Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54.

McCullough, Sara, Little, Julie-Anne and Saunders, Kathryn (2013) Higher Order Aberrations in Children with Down Syndrome. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54 (2). pp. 1527-1535.

Little, Julie-Anne, McCullough, Sara, McClelland, Julie F , Jackson , A. Jonathan and Saunders, Kathryn (2013) Low Contrast Acuity Measurement: Does it add value in the visual assessment of Down syndrome and Cerebral palsy populations?. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54 (1). pp. 251-257.

Breslin, Karen, O'Donoghue, Lisa and Saunders, Kathryn (2013) A Prospective Study of Spherical Refractive Error and Ocular Components Among Northern Irish Schoolchildren (The NICER Study). Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 54 (7). pp. 4843.

O'Donoghue, L, McClelland, JF, Logan, NS, Rudnicka, AR, Owen, CG and Saunders, KJ (2012) Profile of anisometropia and aniso-astigmatism in children: prevalence and association with age, ocular biometric measures and refractive status . Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54 (1). pp. 602-608.

Little, Julie-Anne, Molloy, Jaclyn and Saunders, Kathryn (2012) The differing impact of induced astigmatic blur on crowded and uncrowded paediatric visual acuity chart results.. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the College of Optometrists, 32 (6).

French, AN, O'Donoghue, L, Morgan, IG, Saunders, KJ, Mitchell, P and Rose, KA (2012) Comparison of Refraction and Ocular Biometry in European Caucasian Children Living in Northern Ireland and Sydney, Australia. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 53 (7). pp. 4021-4031.

O'Donoghue, L, Rudnicka , AR, McClelland, JF, Logan, NS and Saunders, KJ (2012) Visual acuity measures do not reliably detect childhood refractive error - an epidemiological study.. Plos One, 7 (3).

McClelland, Julie, O'Donoghue, Lisa, McIntyre, Marta and Saunders, Kathryn (2012) Cup-to-disc and arteriole-to-venule ratios in children aged 6-7 and 12-13 years. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 32.

McCullough, Sara J, Little, Julie-Anne and Saunders, Kathryn J (2011) Higher order ocular aberrations in children with Down syndrome. . In: British congress for Optometry and Vision Science, Liverpool. Wiley-Blackwell.

O'Donoghue, L, Rudnicka , AR, McClelland, JF, Logan, NS, Owen, CG and Saunders, KJ (2011) Refractive and corneal astigmatism in white school children in Northern Ireland. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 53. pp. 4048-4053.

Healey, Natasha, Saunders, Kathryn J, McClelland, Julie and Jackson, Jonathan (2011) Refractive error and emmetropisation in albinism and congenital nystagmus . In: Associaiton for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins .

O'Donoghue, Lisa, McClelland, Julie and Saunders, Kathryn (2011) The use of visual acuity to screen for significant refractive error in white school children in the United Kingdom. In: ARVO 2011. Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.

McCullough , Sara J, Little, Julie-Anne and Saunders, Kathryn J (2011) Anomalous Wavefront Aberrations Reduce Optical Quality In Down Syndrome . In: Association for Research in Vision & Ophthalmology, United States of America. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . Vol 52 (2810-D659)

Lundy, C, Hill, N, Wolsley, C, Shannon, M, McClelland, Julie, Saunders, Kathryn and Jackson, AJ (2011) Multidisciplinary assessment of vision in children with neurological disability. Ulster Medical Journal, 80 (1). pp. 21-27.

Wolsley, Clive, Saunders, Kathryn, Silvestri, Guiliani and Anderson, Roger (2010) Comparing mfERGs with Estimates of Cone Density from in vivo Imaging of the Photoreceptor Mosaic using a Modified Heidelberg Retina Tomograph.. Vision Research, 50 (15). pp. 1462-1468.

O'Donoghue, L, Saunders, KJ, McClelland, JF, Logan, NS, Rudnicka, AR, Gilmartin, B and Owen, CG (2010) Sampling and measurement methods for a study of childhood refractive error in a UK population. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 94 (9). pp. 1150-1154.

O'Donoghue, L, McClelland, JF, Logan, NS, Rudnicka, AR, Owen, CG and Saunders, KJ (2010) Refractive error and visual impairment in school children in Northern Ireland. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 94 (9). pp. 1155-1159.

Saunders, Kathryn J, Little, Julie-Anne, McClelland, Julie F and Jackson, A Jonathan (2010) Profile of Refractive Errors in Cerebral Palsy (CP): impact of severity of motor impairment (GMFCS) and CP subtype on refractive outcome . Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 51 (6). pp. 2885-2890.

King, L, O'Donoghue, Lisa, Saunders, Kathryn, McClelland, Julie, Moore, Adrian, Rubnicka, AR, Owen, CG and Gallagher, Alison (2010) Prevalence and potential determinants of obesity in Northern Irish school children, using geographical information systems (GIS).. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 68 (OCE3). pp. E106.

Saunders, Kathryn (2010) Testing Visual Acuity of Young Children: An Evidence-based Guide for Optometrists. Optometry in Practice, 11 (4). pp. 161-168.

Little, Julie-Anne, McClelland, Julie F , Saunders, Kathryn J and Jackson , A Jonathan (2009) The Relationship Between Axial Length, Refractive Error and Corneal Curvature in Children and Young Adults With Cerebral Palsy . In: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, United States of America. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . Vol 50 (3965-A76)

Little, Julie-Anne, Woodhouse, J Margaret, Lauritzen, Jan S and Saunders, Kathryn (2009) Vernier acuity in Down syndrome.. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 50 (2). pp. 567-72.

Saunders, Kathryn, O'Donoghue, Lisa and McClelland, Julie (2009) Uncorrected Childhood Refractive Error in the United Kingdom. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins , 1 pp

O'Donoghue, Lisa, Saunders, Kathryn and McClelland, Julie (2009) Prevalence of Childhood Refractive Error in the United Kingdom. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins , 1 pp

O'Donoghue, Lisa, Saunders, Kathryn and McClelland, Julie (2009) The Northern Ireland Eye Study: prevalence of refractive error. In: College of Optometrists Research Symposium, Brighton. .

O'Donoghue, Lisa, Saunders, Kathryn and McClelland, Julie (2009) Prevalence of refractive error in Northern Irish children. In: Child Vision Research Society Meeting, Cardiff. .

Wolsley, C J, Silvestri, G, O'Neill, J, Saunders, Kathryn and Anderson, Roger (2009) The association between multifocal electroretinograms and OCT retinal thickness in retinitis pigmentosa patients with good visual acuity.. Eye (London, England), 23 (7). pp. 1524-31.

Saunders, Kathryn J (2009) Optometric Assessment and Management of Patients with Developmental Disability. In: Optometry: Science, Techniques and Clinical Management. (Eds: Rosenfield, Mark, Logan, Nicola and Edwards, Keith), Butterworth Heinemann Elsevier, pp. 513-530. ISBN 978 0 7506 8778 2

Little, Julie-Anne, Woodhouse, J Margaret and Saunders, Kathryn (2009) Corneal power and astigmatism in Down syndrome.. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry, 86 (6). pp. 748-54.

Wolsley, Clive J, Saunders, Kathryn, Silvestri, Giuliana and Anderson, Roger (2008) Investigation of changes in the myopic retina using multifocal electroretinograms, optical coherence tomography and peripheral resolution acuity.. Vision research, 48 (14). pp. 1554-61.

Saunders, Kathryn, McClelland, Julie, Richardson, Patrick and Stevenson, Mike (2008) Clinical judgement of near pupil responses provides a useful indicator of focusing ability in children with cerebral palsy.. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 50 (1). pp. 33-7.

Richardson, Patrick, Saunders, Kathryn and McClelland, Julie (2008) Colour vision testing made easy’: How long can you go?. Optometry in Practice, 9. pp. 17-24.

McCulloch, D L, Mackie, R T, Dutton, G N, Bradnam, M S, Day, R E, McDaid, G J, Phillips, S, Napier, A, Herbert, A M, Saunders, Kathryn and Shepherd, A J (2007) A visual skills inventory for children with neurological impairments.. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 49 (10). pp. 757-63.

McClelland, Julie, Saunders, Kathryn, Hill, Nan, Magee, Anne, Shannon, Myrtle and Jackson, A Jonathan (2007) The changing visual profile of children attending a regional specialist school for the visually impaired in Northern Ireland.. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists), 27 (6). pp. 556-60.

Little, Julie-Anne, Woodhouse, J Margaret, Lauritzen, Jan S and Saunders, Kathryn (2007) The impact of optical factors on resolution acuity in children with Down syndrome.. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 48 (9). pp. 3995-4001.

McClelland, Julie, Parkes, Jackie, Hill, Nan, Jackson, A Jonathan and Saunders, Kathryn (2006) Accommodative dysfunction in children with cerebral palsy: a population-based study.. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 47 (5). pp. 1824-30.

Little, Julie-Anne, Lauritzen, Jan and Saunders, Kathryn J (2005) A Novel Computer-Based Method for Measuring Vernier Acuity at Short Test Distances. In: Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, United States of America. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins . Vol 46 (5647-B850)

McCulloch, DL, Henderson, RM, Saunders, Kathryn and Walley, RM (2005) Vision in Rett Syndrome: studies using evoked potentials and event-related potentials. In: Rett Disorder and the Developing Brain. (Eds: Kerr, A and Witt, I), Oxford University Press, pp. 339-344. ISBN 978-0198568155

McClelland, Julie and Saunders, Kathryn (2004) Accommodative lag using dynamic retinoscopy: age norms for school-age children.. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry, 81 (12). pp. 929-33.

Saunders, Kathryn (2004) Assessment of Visual Acuity in Infancy and Early Childhood. In: Paediatric Optometry. (Eds: Harvey, W and Gilmartin, B), Butterworth-Heinemann, pp. 15-20. ISBN 0750687924

McClelland, Julie and Saunders, Kathryn (2003) The repeatability and validity of dynamic retinoscopy in assessing the accommodative response.. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists), 23 (3). pp. 243-50.

Saunders, Kathryn, McCulloch, D L, Shepherd, A J and Wilkinson, A G (2002) Emmetropisation following preterm birth.. The British journal of ophthalmology, 86 (9). pp. 1035-40.

Cregg, M, Woodhouse, J M, Pakeman, V H, Saunders, Kathryn, Gunter, H L, Parker, M, Fraser, W I and Sastry, P (2001) Accommodation and refractive error in children with Down syndrome: cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 42 (1). pp. 55-63.

Woodhouse, J M, Cregg, M, Gunter, H L, Sanders, D P, Saunders, Kathryn, Pakeman, V H, Parker, M, Fraser, W I and Sastry, P (2000) The effect of age, size of target, and cognitive factors on accommodative responses of children with Down syndrome.. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 41 (9). pp. 2479-85.

Shepherd, A, Saunders, Kathryn and McCulloch, D (1999) Effect of sleep state on the flash visual evoked potential. A case study.. Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology, 98 (3). pp. 247-56.

Jackson, A J and Saunders, Kathryn (1999) The optometric assessment of the visually impaired infant and young child.. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists), 19 Suppl 2. pp. S49-62.

Shepherd, A J, Saunders, Kathryn, McCulloch, D L and Dutton, G N (1999) Prognostic value of flash visual evoked potentials in preterm infants.. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 41 (1). pp. 9-15.

Jackson, AJ and Saunders, Kathryn (1999) The Optometric Assessment of the Visually Impaired Child. Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, 19(S). pp. 49-62.

Saunders, Kathryn J (1999) Visual Acuity. In: Assessing Children's Vision: A Handbook. (Eds: Leat, SJ, Shute, RH and Westall, CA), Butterworth Heinemann, pp. 171-192. ISBN 0750605847

Mackie, R T, McCulloch, D L, Saunders, Kathryn, Day, R E, Phillips, S and Dutton, G N (1998) Relation between neurological status, refractive error, and visual acuity in children: a clinical study.. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 40 (1). pp. 31-7.

Shepherd, AJ, Saunders, Kathryn and McCulloch, DL (1998) The visual evoked potential in newborns: assessment of the integrity of the visual pathway.. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 4 (3). pp. 9-12.

Shepherd, AJ, Saunders, Kathryn and McCulloch, DL (1998) The flash visual evoked potential in preterm infants: Its predictive value for severe neurological outcome.. Journal of Neonatal Nursing, 4 (6). pp. 31-35.

Woodhouse, J M, Pakeman, V H, Cregg, M, Saunders, Kathryn, Parker, M, Fraser, W I, Sastry, P and Lobo, S (1997) Refractive errors in young children with Down syndrome.. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry, 74 (10). pp. 844-51.

Saunders, Kathryn, Brown, G and McCulloch, D L (1997) Pattern-onset visual evoked potentials: more useful than reversal for patients with nystagmus.. Documenta ophthalmologica. Advances in ophthalmology, 94 (3). pp. 265-74.

Shepherd, AJ, McCulloch, DL, Saunders, KJ, Bradnam, MS, Wilkinson, A and Turner, T (1997) Early Maturation of the flash VEP in preterm.. Prenatal and Neonatal Medicine, 2 (3). pp. 247-249.

Saunders, Kathryn, Woodhouse, J M and Westall, C A (1996) The modified frisby stereotest.. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, 33 (6). pp. 323-7.

Woodhouse, J M, Pakeman, V H, Saunders, Kathryn, Parker, M, Fraser, W I, Lobo, S and Sastry, P (1996) Visual acuity and accommodation in infants and young children with Down's syndrome.. Journal of intellectual disability research : JIDR, 40 ( Pt 1). pp. 49-55.

Dutton, G, Ballantyne, J, Boyd, G, Bradnam, M, Day, R, McCulloch, D, Mackie, R, Phillips, S and Saunders, Kathryn (1996) Cortical visual dysfunction in children: a clinical study.. Eye (London, England), 10 ( Pt 3). pp. 302-9.

Mackie, R T, Saunders, Kathryn, Day, R E, Dutton, G N and McCulloch, D L (1996) Visual acuity assessment of children with neurological impairment using grating and vanishing optotype acuity cards.. Acta ophthalmologica Scandinavica, 74 (5). pp. 483-7.

Saunders, Kathryn, Westall, CA and Woodhouse, JM (1996) Longitudinal assessment of monocular acuity: predictive value of estimates in infancy.. Neuro-ophthalmology, 16 (1). pp. 15-25.

Mackie, R T, McCulloch, D L, Saunders, Kathryn, Ballantyne, J, Day, R E, Bradnam, M S and Dutton, G N (1995) Comparison of visual assessment tests in multiply handicapped children.. Eye (London, England), 9 ( Pt 1). pp. 136-41.

Saunders, Kathryn, Woodhouse, J M and Westall, C A (1995) Emmetropisation in human infancy: rate of change is related to initial refractive error.. Vision research, 35 (9). pp. 1325-8.

Saunders, Kathryn, McCulloch, D L and Kerr, A M (1995) Visual function in Rett syndrome.. Developmental medicine and child neurology, 37 (6). pp. 496-504.

Saunders, Kathryn (1995) Early refractive development in humans.. Survey of Ophthalmology, 40. pp. 207-216.

Woodhouse, J M, Meades, J S, Leat, S J and Saunders, Kathryn (1993) Reduced accommodation in children with Down syndrome.. Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 34 (7). pp. 2382-7.

Westall, C A, Woodhouse, J M, Saunders, Kathryn, Evans, J and Hughes, B (1992) Problems measuring contrast sensitivity in children.. Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists), 12 (2). pp. 244-8.

Saunders, Kathryn and Westall, C A (1992) Comparison between near retinoscopy and cycloplegic retinoscopy in the refraction of infants and children.. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry, 69 (8). pp. 615-22.

This list was generated on Wed Apr 23 10:29:06 2014 BST.